This farming system is found in both humid and moist subhumid agro-ecological zones in well-watered mainly flat landscapes8. It covers an estimated 197 million ha and, with an agricultural population of 474 million, it is the most populous system in the region. Cultivated area is 71 million ha, of which about 45 percent are irrigated.
Large areas of this system are found in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, South and Central East China, Philippines and Indonesia. Smaller areas are located in Cambodia, Korea DPR, Republic of Korea, Laos DPR and Malaysia. The farming system is dominantly rice-based, with cropping intensity dependent on rainfall distribution, length of growing season and the availability of supplementary irrigation. Important subsidiary crops include oilseeds, maize, root crops, soybeans, sugarcane, cotton, vegetables and fruits in all areas
This farming system is found mainly in the humid agro-ecological zone, but also extends into moist subhumid areas, principally on flat to undulating landscapes with poor soils where paddy rice cannot be intensively produced.
Total system area is 85 million ha, with an agricultural population of 30 million. Cultivated area is estimated at 18 million ha, of which little more than 12 percent are irrigated. Significant areas of this system are found in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Vietnam, Southern China and Papua New Guinea. Major industrial crops include rubber, oil palm, coconut, coffee, tea and cocoa, with some other associated crops such as pepper and other spices.
Tree crops are grown under both large private estate and smallholder management systems.
This farming system is found in humid and moist subhumid agro-ecological zones in both plain and hill landscapes, typically in areas with low population density. Total system area is 25 million ha, with an agricultural population of approximately 1.5 million. Cultivated area is about 1.2 million ha, less than one percent of total area - no irrigated area is recorded. The system is found in Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands generally, and often merges into the Coastal Artisanal Fishing System towards the coastline.
Although of minor significance on a regional level, it is the dominant farming system in many Pacific countries. It is based on the use of root food crops (yams, taro, sweet potato), vegetables and fruits (particularly banana), coconut and livestock, supplemented by hunting and gathering in the forest.
This farming system is found in upland and hill landscapes of moderate altitude and slope, in humid and subhumid agro-ecological zones. Total system area is 314 million ha, with an agricultural population of 310 million - the second most populous system, after Lowland Rice, in the region. Cultivated area is 75 million ha of which just under one quarter are irrigated. This is the most widespread and most heterogeneous farming system in the region (even including some remnant shifting cultivation), with major areas located in all countries of East and Southeast Asia.
The system is characterised by the cultivation of a wide range of mostly permanent crops, but the specific crops preferred depend on geographic area, agro-climatic conditions, slope, terracing and water regime. A significant crop area - mainly rice - is irrigated from local streams and rivers. Livestock production is an important component of most farm livelihoods (there are 52 million large ruminants and 49 million small ruminants in this system) and contributes draught power, meat, cash income and savings.